Wilson, James Q., and Kelling, George. Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety. Atlantic Monthly, March, 1982.

Harcourt, Bernard. Policing Disorder: Can We Reduce Serious Crime by Punishing Petty Offenses? Boston Review, April/May, 2002.

Sampson, Robert; Raudenbush, Stephen; and Earls, Felton. Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy. Science, New Series, Vol. 277, No. 5328. (Aug. 15, 1997), pp. 918-924.

Sampson, Robert, and Raudenbush, Stephen. Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods. The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 105, No. 3. (Nov., 1999), pp. 603-651.

Hurley, Dan. Scientist at Work—Felton Earls: On Crime As Science (A Neighbor At a Time). The New York Times, January 6, 2004.

Skogan, Wesley. Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. (Review). The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (Sep., 1997), pp. 510-512.

Grogan, Paul, and Proscio, Tony. Comeback Cities: A Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival. Boulder: Westview Press, 2000.

Cohen, Lawrence E. Throwing Down the Gauntlet: A Challenge to the Relevance of Sociology for the Etiology of Criminal Behavior: A Review of Crime and Human Nature. Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 16, No. 2. (Mar., 1987), pp. 202-205.

Lizza, Ryan. The Year in Ideas: The Ambulance-Homicide Theory. The New York Times, December 15, 2002.

Elesh, David. The Unheavenly City (Review). The Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 6, No. 2. (Spring, 1971), pp. 251-256.

Ross, Catherine; Mirowsky, John; and Pribesh, Shana. Powerlessness and the Amplification of Threat: Neighborhood Disadvantage, Disorder, and Mistrust. American Sociological Review, Vol. 66, No. 4. (Aug., 2001), pp. 568-591.

DePalma, Anthony. The Americas Court: a Group That Changed New York. The New York Times, November 11, 2002.

Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point. The New Yorker, June 3, 1996.

Harris, Bernard. A key to Lancaster renaissance: Fix the 'little things'; New Quality of Life Task Force targets graffiti, trash, junked cars. Lancaster New Era, June 19, 2001.

McNamara, Joseph. Brutality in the Name of Public Safety. The Record, August 26, 1997.

Benedict, Kevin. New Safety Coalition picks up where Crime Commission left off; Group represents residents, businesses and other organizations. It offers surveillance cameras, training and other resources to improve city neighborhoods. Lancaster New Era, July 14, 2003.

Lardner, Charles. A better fix for 'broken windows'; Law prof warns against heavy-handed policing. Intelligencer Journal (Lancaster, PA), October 9, 2002.

Jenkins, Daniel. Community Policing Problems: Most People Don't Want to Become Involved. Sunday News (Lancaster, PA), June 30, 2002.

Kelly, Doris. Take Down Icicles (Letters). Lancaster New Era, April 15, 2002.

Stamberg, Susan (host). Weekend Edition. National Public Radio, January 17, 2004.

Rashbaum, William. In New Focus on Quality of Life, City Goes After Petty Criminals. The New York Times, May 22, 2002.

Rury, John. I. Q. Redux: A Review of The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4. (Winter, 1995), pp. 423-438.

Guthrie, Amy. When Cops Are Thugs. The Village Voice, September 2, 2003.

back to main essay

Written Word