1. On Crime As Science (A Neighbor At a Time), January 6, 2004
2. I am possessed of the full text of Broken Windows only in a form which has no page numbers to refer to; archived online, it appears essentially as a single long page. Here and in numerous instances as I go along, I will quote Wilson and Kelling with no better specification, because to my knowledge this is the only article on which the two have collaborated, and I've no more specific citations to give.
3. Accounts vary on one critical point: some claim that each car's plates were removed, and each hood propped open, while others say this was true only of the car in the Bronx. The wording in Wilson's and Kelling's retelling is ambiguous, which I suspect is the root of the confusion: the more probable account, judging both by its reasonability as an experiment and the fact that it is favored by people writing about Zimbardo rather than about Wilson and Kelling, is that the cars were presented identically.
4. Bernard Harcourt, Policing Disorder: Can We Reduce Serious Crime by Punishing Petty Offenses? Boston Review, April/May, 2002. Harcourt's article, like Broken Windows itself, is archived online so as to have no page numbers. Policing Disorder is the only article by that author that will be referenced here.
5. The Year in Ideas: The Ambulance-Homicide Theory, the New York Times, December 15, 2002
6. Even Democratic candidates for mayor of New York were obliged to repeat the Broken Windows dogma by the end of Giuliani's term, Harcourt relates: asked what they would do if the squeegee men returned, "they fell over each other pledging to maintain the crackdown on quality-of-life offenses."
7. The Americas Court: a Group That Changed New York, the New York Times, November 11, 2002
8. Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. (Review). The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (Sep., 1997), pp. 510-512.
9. The Tipping Point, The New Yorker, June 3, 1996
10. A key to Lancaster renaissance: Fix the 'little things'; New Quality of Life Task Force targets graffiti, trash, junked cars, Lancaster New Era, June 19, 2001
11. Brutality in the Name of Public Safety, the Record, August 26, 1997
12. Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. (Review). The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (Sep., 1997), pp. 510-512.
13. From the essay collection Thinking About Crime, as quoted by Bernard Harcourt, who attributes to it much of the popularity of what he calls "incapacitation theory." Harcourt has done painstaking work in tracing the two-kinds-of-people notion through Wilson's oeuvre, and in my comparatively superficial survey I am leaning on him heavily.
14. Taken again from Harcourt, who says only that Wilson wrote this "in 1968." Presumably this is from Varieties of Police Behavior.
15. Community Policing Problems: Most People Don't Want to Become Involved, Sunday News, June 30, 2002
16. On Crime As Science (A Neighbor At a Time), January 6, 2004
17. Weekend Edition, January 17, 2004
18. In New Focus on Quality of Life, City Goes After Petty Criminals, the New York Times, May 22, 2002
19. The Americas Court: a Group That Changed New York, the New York Times, November 11, 2002
20. When Cops Are Thugs, Village Voice, September 2, 2003
back to main essay